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Insertion au marché du travail : les expériences des immigrants sénégalais à Montréal by Maguemati Wabgou

RÉSUMÉ

L’article aborde le thème de l’insertion des Sénégalais au marché du travail montréalais sur la base de deux observations qui constituent les hypothèses de base de cette analyse : (1) Dans les sociétés d’accueil telle que la Québécoise, les liens sociaux établis entre les travailleurs étrangers permettent d’exprimer leur appui les uns à l’égard des autres lors de la recherche d’emploi; (2) Les structures du marché du travail conditionnent la mobilité de carrière des immigrants dans la mesure où leur insertion à ces marchés dépend beaucoup plus de cette structuration que des capacités professionnelles de ces travailleurs étrangers. Tout semble préétabli pour drainer la main-d’œuvre d’origine étrangère vers des emplois spécifiques situés le plus souvent dans le marché secondaire. Un des résultats les plus percutants de cette recherche révèle que, malgré le rôle important joué par les réseaux sociaux dans les structures de marché du travail montréalais et entre les membres du collectif sénégalais pour avoir accès à certains emplois, globalement ces réseaux n’ont pas encore pu se constituer en moyens privilégiés d’insertion des personnes sénégalaises au marché du travail montréalais tel que cela se passe au sein d’autres minorités ethniques (les Asiatiques, par exemple). C’est ici que la théorie des réseaux sociaux aide à comprendre l’immigration sénégalaise à Montréal dans la mesure où elle met en exergue l’utilité du recours à ces réseaux au sein du collectif sénégalais et les limites de leur fonctionnement en tant que système global d’intégration au marché du travail dans cette étude de cas.

MOTS CLÉS : Immigrants, Sénégalais, Marché du travail, Montréal.

SUMMARY

This work discusses the dynamics and implications of the insertion into the labour market of Senegalese people in Montreal. Thus, issues have been discussed on the basis of two observations which constitute the hypothesis of the research: (1) In destination places such us Québec, the established social ties between foreign workers help them supporting one another while searching for job; (2) The structures of the labour market highly influence their career mobility in such a way that their insertion in these labour markets depends more on their individual patterns (cultural, ethnic characteristics) than on their capability to work (as human capital). All operates as if everything is pre-established to direct them to some specific jobs located in the secondary labour markets. One of the most important outcomes of this work is related to the fact that, although social networks play an important role in the incorporation of the Senegalese people into labour markets, they haven’t become key factors for their integration into the labour market in Montreal yet, compared with other ethnic minorities such as the Asians. Henceforth, even if the recourse to the theory of social networks to explain the mechanisms and strategies adopted by Senegalese migrants to get jobs and remain into workplaces in Montreal has been efficient, we need to acknowledge its limitations in this case study as a global system of the insertion into the labour markets.

KEY WORDS: Immigrants, Senegalese, Labour Market, Montréal.

Download the working paper (French)

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