Model(ling) citizens? Integration Policies and Value Integration of Turkish Immigrants and Their Descendants in Germany, France, and the Netherlands
This article investigates to what extent integration policy models affect immigrants’ adoption of residence country attitudes. Data come from an original survey among Turkish immigrants and their descendants in three countries with distinctive policy models: Germany, France, and the Netherlands. Two types of attitudes are investigated: room for Islam in the public sphere and moral liberalism. The opinions of the immigrants are compared both in absolute terms and in terms of the value gap with the average opinion in the residence society populations. The results suggest that the effect of integration policies is modest at best.