Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Sub-Saharian migration is at the centre stage of public debates in Europe. It is often viewed as a one-way massive migration flow, as if there were no returns (apart from expulsions). Using data from the MAFE-Senegal and MAFE-Congo surveys, this paper aim s at describing migration trends and examining determinants of migrations, looking at both departures and returns. We show that, in Senegal and in DR Congo, two migration models exist: one model specific to migration to African countries, and a model of migration to Western countries. The two models differ with respect to the trends and determinants of departures and returns. We show that migration to Western is highly selective by education for migrants from Senegal and DR Congo, and are much less selective form migration to Africa. Migration trends to Western countries and to Africa have also evolved in different ways in both countries. Finally we show that, even though return migrations are much less frequent from Western countries than from European countries, they are relatively common. Results also indicate that returns from Western countries to both Senegal and DR Congo have become less frequent as conditions of departures have become more restrictive.

More information


Working paper



Publication Date




Total pages